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Formation, Structure, Functioning, and Role of the Lok Sabha

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The Lok Sabha, the lower house of India's Parliament, plays a central role in the country's democratic system. Understanding its formation, structure, functioning, and role is essential for grasping the broader aspects of India's parliamentary democracy. This blog will explore these facets with references to relevant articles from the Indian Constitution.



Formation of the Lok Sabha



The Lok Sabha is the directly elected house of the Parliament of India, reflecting the will of the people. Its formation is guided by several articles in the Constitution:



Election and Composition (Article 81)



Article 81 of the Constitution specifies the composition of the Lok Sabha. It states that the Lok Sabha shall consist of not more than 552 members, including not more than 20 members to represent Union Territories. The rest are elected directly by the people from various constituencies across the country.



Duration (Article 83)



According to Article 83, the Lok Sabha has a term of five years from the date of its first meeting unless dissolved sooner by the President. However, during a national emergency, the term can be extended by Parliament for one year at a time.



Qualification for Membership (Article 84)



Article 84 outlines the qualifications required to be a member of the Lok Sabha. A person must be a citizen of India, at least 25 years old, and possess such other qualifications as may be prescribed by law.



Structure of the Lok Sabha



The structure of the Lok Sabha is designed to ensure effective representation and functioning:



The Speaker and Deputy Speaker (Articles 93-97)



Article 93 provides for the election of the Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Lok Sabha. The Speaker presides over the sessions, maintaining order and decorum, while the Deputy Speaker assists and stands in during the Speaker's absence.






The Lok Sabha has various committees to handle different aspects of legislative work, including Standing Committees, Ad Hoc Committees, and Joint Committees. These committees scrutinize bills, budgets, and policies in detail, ensuring thorough examination and discussion.



Functioning of the Lok Sabha



The functioning of the Lok Sabha involves several key processes and procedures:



Sessions (Article 85)



Article 85 mandates that the President shall summon each House of Parliament at least twice a year, with no more than six months between sessions. The Lok Sabha typically has three sessions each year: Budget, Monsoon, and Winter Sessions.



Legislative Procedure (Articles 107-111)



Articles 107-111 outline the legislative process in the Lok Sabha. A bill can be introduced by any member (with Money Bills requiring the President's recommendation). It goes through several readings and must be passed by a majority before being sent to the Rajya Sabha and then to the President for assent.



Question Hour and Zero Hour



The Lok Sabha's daily sessions begin with Question Hour, where members ask questions to the ministers. This is followed by Zero Hour, where members raise urgent issues without prior notice.



Role of the Lok Sabha



The Lok Sabha plays a multifaceted role in India's parliamentary democracy:






The primary role of the Lok Sabha is to legislate. It debates and passes laws on a wide range of issues affecting the country. All Money Bills, which deal with financial matters, must originate in the Lok Sabha.






The Lok Sabha represents the voice of the people. Members are directly elected by citizens from various constituencies, ensuring that diverse viewpoints and regional interests are represented in the Parliament.



Control Over the Executive



The Lok Sabha exercises control over the executive branch of the government. Through tools like Question Hour, motions of no confidence, and discussions on various issues, it holds the government accountable for its actions and policies.



Financial Control (Article 110)



Article 110 defines Money Bills, which include taxation and expenditure. The Lok Sabha has exclusive powers to approve these bills, ensuring that the government's financial policies reflect the people's will.



Amendment of the Constitution (Article 368)



While both Houses of Parliament participate in amending the Constitution, the Lok Sabha plays a crucial role. Any amendment must be passed by a two-thirds majority in both houses before it becomes law.






The Lok Sabha, as the lower house of India's Parliament, is a cornerstone of the country's democratic framework. Its formation, structure, functioning, and roles are meticulously outlined in the Constitution, ensuring that it operates effectively and represents the people's will. From legislating and representing diverse interests to controlling the executive and overseeing financial matters, the Lok Sabha's multifaceted roles are vital for the smooth functioning of Indian democracy.

By understanding these aspects, we gain a deeper appreciation of how the Lok Sabha contributes to the governance and development of India, reflecting the essence of democratic principles enshrined in the Constitution.


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